Cricket :- training on field

[1] [approx. 1] ( born cricket) is a non-contact team sport that is part of a family of games that use the bat and ball . Cricket originated in the 16th century in the south of England . By the end of the 18th century, the game became one of the national sports. The expansion of the British Empire contributed to the spread of the game around the world. The first test matches between the national teams were held in the middle of the XIX century. Cricket match involves the competition of two teams, each of which is represented by eleven The rules of the game are created and changed by the Marylebone Cricket Club [4] . In addition, the International Cricket Council has developed standard gaming conditions for test and one-day international matches [5] [6] . The creation and use of additional conditions at the domestic championship level is the responsibility of the national cricket federations. The game rules provide for several formats for the match, including the system of a limited number of overs. The system involves holding a match in one or two innings, which may be limited in time or in the number of overs. The rules traditionally use the English system of measures , while new versions of the rules include measurements in SI .
The set of rules includes

the following sections: preface, preamble, 42 rules and four appendices. The foreword shows a brief history of the rules and the Marylebone Club. The preamble has been included in the rules relatively recently. This section contains cricket ethical standards. The rules themselves have changed eight times. The amendments concerned the problems of poor lighting, the order of the draw, the ethical principles of the game and other aspects of cricket [7] .
The list of game rules and their summary are presented below.athletes. The game takes place on an elliptical grass field. In the center of the field is a rectangular earthen ground – pitch . The pitch is 22 yards or a little over 20 meters and 10 feet or 3 meters wide. At the ends of the pitch are wooden gates . Game zones at the ends of the pitch are separated fromTeams in turn hit the ball and play in the field, trying to score the maximum number of points or, accordingly, prevent this opponent. Depending on the format of the game, a team may hit the ball once or twice in a row. ( . English batsman), reflecting the ball bat [approx. 2] . A key role in some game episodes is played by Wicket Keeper. Cricket moves are called innings. Athletes playing in the field teams are dispersed throughout the field, while rivals are represented by only two batsmen. Within each innings, the bowler of the playing field team throws the ball to the opponent’s batsman through the entire pitch. The batsman tries to deflect the shot so that the ball reaches the field’s borders or flies far enough away from the opponents, which would allow the batsman to run across to the other end of the pitch. If successful, and subject to certain other conditions, the batsman team earns points, wounds ( Eng. Run – “run”) At the same time, the fulfillment of certain game conditions — the capture of the ball by an opponent before touching the ground, the destruction of the batsman’s gate, etc. — takes the batsman out of the game. Innings continues until ten batsmen of the batsman are removed from the game, after which the teams change roles. Bowlers succeed after six innings, a set of Different formats can significantly differ from each other in some parameters, for example, duration. Short games include only 20 overs, which is about 3.5 hours of playing time, while test matches between the leading teams can last up to five days of a six-hour confrontation. The change in the rules of the game is administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, the world’s largest cricket brand [2] . Global regulation of cricket is carried out by the International Cricket Council , which unites 105 members, only 12 of which have full status [3] .The first four rules apply to match participants: players, referees and markers.
Rule 1: Players. The cricket team includes eleven players, including a captain. Outside the framework of official competitions, teams can agree on a larger number of rosters, while no more than eleven players can be in the field [8] .
Rule 2: Substitutions. In cricket it is possible to replace injured players, however, the substitute player cannot beat, serve, guard the gate or act as a captain. In case of restoration and with the consent of the referee, the replaced player shall be returned to the field. An incapable of running a batsman may have his own runner who will run while the batsman continues to beat. If a player enters the field without an arbiter team and touches the ball, the ball immediately becomes dead (see Rule 23), and the batter team receives 5 wounds [9] .
Rule 3: Judges. Two referees work at the matches, who monitor the observance of the rules, make all the necessary decisions and inform the markers about them. The rules do not require a third referee, but in high-level cricket, he (being out of the field and helping the field referees) can work in a particular match or tournament under special gaming circumstances [10] .
Rule 4: Markers. The game has two markers that follow the signals of the judges and keep score [11] .

Match structure

The next block of rules determines the requirements for the course of the match.

Rule 12: Innings. Before the game, the teams agree whether one innings will be held ( English innings – “serve” ), or whether the winner will be determined by the results of two games. In addition, opponents find out whether innings will be limited in time or in the number of overs. In practice, these parameters are determined by the rules of a competition. If in a match with two innings no follow-up is declared(see Rule 13), then the teams in turn hit the ball. Innings is considered completed when all batsmen of the batter’s team are eliminated from the game, the captain informs about the announcement or refusal of innings, or when the time limit or the number of overs expires. Before the game, a draw is held, according to which the winning captain chooses whether his team will beat or play in the field first [19] .

Rule 13: Follow-on. This rule applies to matches in two innings [approx. 7]. If the team that beats the second one gains significantly fewer wounds than the first, then the first team can announce a fall-on, that is, force opponents to conduct the second innings in the role of bats immediately after the first. In other words, the teams will be in the role of beating on the principle of first, second, second, first, while the standard scheme assumes the order first, second, first, second. For a match lasting five days or more, the necessary gap in the score should be 200 wounds, for a three- or four-day match the difference should be 150 points. A two-day game allows a gap of 100 points; finally, within the framework of a one-day match, the announcement of a follow-up becomes possible with a gap of 75 wounds [20] .

Rule 14: Announcement and Denial. This rule applies to matches in two innings [approx. 7] If the ball is declared dead [approx. 8] , the captain of the batting team can complete the innings at any time. This procedure is called the announcement ( Eng.  Declaration). The captain makes an announcement if he believes that the team scored enough wounds to win. The captain can also refuse to conduct innings before it begins. Innings that the team refused to hold are considered played [21] .

Rule 15: Breaks. The match provides for several types of breaks of various durations. Between innings the teams rest for ten minutes. There are lunch breaks , tea drinking and a special break to quench your thirst. The schedule of breaks must be agreed before the match. In some situations, a schedule change is allowed [22] .

Rule 16: Start of the game, termination of the game. The signal to continue the game after the break is the team of the judge “Play” ( “game” ). The game is terminated by the command “Time”( “time” ). The last hour of the game must include at least 20 overs. If fewer overs are played, the referee extends the playing time for fulfilling the norm [23] .

Rule 17: Training on the field. Players cannot use the pitch for training on match days. Violation of the rule is punishable by removing the player for a while. Trial runs before serving are prohibited if, in the judge’s opinion, this can lead to a waste of playing time [24] .

Leave a Comment