Football ( English football from foot “foot” + ball “ball”) is a team sport in which the goal is to score the ball into the opponent’s goal with his feet or other parts of the body (except hands) more times than the opposing team. Currently the most popular and massive sport in the world [1] [2] [3] .
The player playing this game is the football player .See en: Names for association football for more details.
FIFA and the International Olympic Committee use “football” as the official international name for the game.
The full English name of the game, “association football” , was chosen after the creation of the English Football Association in 1863 to distinguish this.where hand-playing was allowed. Over time, the long names of game options began to shrink in everyday speech and print. First reduction «assoc.» Was spread out in England and then in the 1880s it was formed by the term “soccer” ( Engl. Soccer) by adding a reduction «-soc-» suffix «-er»in the Oxford manner (by analogy, rugby football was abbreviated as “ragger” ( English rugger)) [4] . In periodicals, the term “soker” has been used since at least 1892 [5] .
Nowadays, the name “sokker” is common in a number of English-speaking countries, where other varieties of football have historically continued to be popular. For example, Australia and New Zealand have historically called Australian football or rugby league football . In Ireland, the term “football” refers to Gaelic football , so “sokker” is used in the press [6] [7] . In South Africa, the game is mostly known as “Sokker”, which is expressed in the name of the South African Championship , which hosted the 2010 World Cup finals . ATThe United States and Canada use the term sokker, as American football and Canadian football are called football . In England, the name “sokker” is outdated and new generations of fans now consider it dismissive.
In other languages, the name of the game is:
or by borrowing the English word football , as in Russian – “football”, in Portuguese – futebol ;
or tracing the word football , such as in German – Fußball , Greek – ποδόσφαιρο , Finnish – jalkapallo , Hebrew – כדורגל , Karelian – jalgamiäččy and Adyghe – leepeeu ;
or derivatives of the words “kick”, “leg”, etc., as in Italian – calcio , Croatian – nogomet, Polish – piłka nożna (foot ball) .

Early varieties of football

Ball games have been played in many countries [8] . In China, this variety was called Zhu-Ke [9] . In ancient Sparta, the game was called “Episciros” [9] , and in ancient Rome, “Harpastum” [10] . Somewhere in the New Age , games were held in the Bryansk lands, the inventory of which was a leather ball the size of a human head, stuffed with feathers. These competitions were named as “huck” and “keel” [11] . Around the 14th century, Italians invented the game “Calcho” [12] . They brought this game to the British Isles [13] .

First rules

In the 19th century, football in England gained popularity comparable to cricket [14] . It was played mainly in colleges [15] . But in some colleges, the rules allowed the dribbling and passing of the ball by hand, while in others, on the contrary, it was forbidden [16] . The first attempt to create uniform rules was made in 1846, when representatives of several colleges met. They established the first set of rules [17] . In 1857, the first dedicated football club was founded – ” Sheffield[18] . In 1863, after long negotiations, a set of rules was adopted by the Football Association of England. The sizes of the field and the gate were also taken [19]. And in 1871 the FA Cup was founded  – the oldest football tournament in the world [20] . In 1891, the penalty rule was adopted . But at first the penalty kick was not from the point, but from the line, which, as now, was at a distance of 11 meters from the goal [21] .

In the 1880s, football became popular in society. The number of clubs in the Football Association exceeded 100. At the same time, rumors began to circulate that some clubs pay players wages, and according to the initial plan of the association, football is an exclusively amateur sport [22] . Therefore, in 1882, the following paragraph was added to the rules:

Any club player who receives any form of reward from the club or a monetary reimbursement in excess of his personal expenses or funds in connection with entering a game is automatically suspended in the Cup competition, in any competition under the auspices of the FA and in international tournaments. The club that hired such a player is automatically expelled from the Association.


At the beginning of 1884, the Upton Park club accused the Preston North End of paying salaries to the players of this club. President of the “Preston” William Saddel is also recognized [23] . The club was expelled from the FA. And in 1885, the Football Association still allowed the players to pay salaries [23] . This led to the creation of the world’s first regular Football League [24] . The champion of this tournament was Preston North End [25] . On November 30, 1872, the first ever international match was held. He went between the teams of England and Scotland [26] . In 1904, FIFA, the governing organization in football, was founded in Paris . It includes: Belgium ,Denmark , France , the Netherlands , Spain (as FC Madrid), Swedenand Switzerland [27] .

In 1901, in Montevideo , the first ever match took place with the participation of teams that did not represent the British Isles  – the hosts, the Uruguayan team in a bitter struggle lost to Argentina with a score of 2: 3 [28] .

The beginning of international competitions

After Jules Rome was elected president of FIFA in 1921, the proposal to consider subsequent Olympic football tournaments as “amateur soccer world championships” was ratified. These tournaments – 1924 and 1928 – were won by the Uruguayan national team [29] . Thanks to these successes, the Uruguayan Football Association had no rivals in the struggle to organize the first ever FIFA World Cup (better known in Russian simply as the World Cup ), which took place in 1930. Uruguayans won the home championship, three-time world football champions and the first owners of the FIFA World Cup. This marked the beginning of a new era in the history of football [30]. Until 1970, this trophy was named after Jules Rimet, was also known as the “Cup of the Goddess Nike,” but after the third victory of the Brazilian national team at the World Cup, it was given to her for eternal storage. Instead, the modern World Cup began to be played.

The soccer ball must be spherical , used for playing soccer, the parameters of which are governed by Rule 2 of the Rules of the game of soccer .

The ball consists of 3 parts: tires, lining and camera:

  • Tire – the upper shell of the ball, which strikes.
  • Lining – the middle shell of the ball, the strength of the ball depends on the thickness of the ball (the thicker the stronger).
  • The chamber is the central shell of the ball into which air is pumped for more convenient striking.


    Matches can be held both in fields with natural and in fields with artificial turf. According to the official rules of the game of football, artificial turf must be green. The field for the game has the shape of a rectangle . The side line must be longer than the goal line. It was decided that the field should be 100–110 m (110–120 yards) long and at least 64–75 m (70–80 yards) wide but then the requirement was suspende

    The goal used when playing football consists of two vertical posts (poles) that are equally spaced from the corner flagpoles (that is, the goal must be centered on the goal line ) connected at the top by a horizontal bar.


    Marking the field is done with lines no wider than 12 cm (5 inches) wide; these lines are included in the areas that they limit. All lines should be the same width.

    Name of the field lines: Two long lines bordering the field for the game are called side lines ; two short lines – front lines or goal lines , since the gates are located on them [34] .

    Midline: The field is divided into two halves using a midline connecting the midpoints of the sidelines. In the middle of the midline, the center of the field  is marked – a solid circle with a diameter of 0.3 m (1 ft). Around the center of the field is a circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yards). From the mark of the center of the field at the beginning of each of the halves of the main and additional time, as well as after each goal scored , an initial hit is performed. When performing the initial strike, all players must be in their own half of the field, and the opponents of the team performing the strike should be outside the central circle.

    Penalty area: a penalty area  is marked on each half of the field – an area in which the goalkeeper can play with his hands, and an 11-meter kick will be awarded to the gate of the team that committed a penalty in their own penalty area, punishable by a free -kick . The penalty area is 40.32 m (44 yards) by 16.5 m (18 yards). Within the penalty area, in the center of the goal line and at a distance of 11 m (12 yards) from it, a penalty mark is applied – A solid circle with a diameter of 0.3 m (1 ft). Outside the penalty area, an arc of a circle with a radius of 9.15 m (10 yards) is drawn, the center of which is at the eleven meter mark; this arc is used to position team players when breaking through an eleven meter hit. [35]

    Goal area: the goal area is marked on each half of the field  – the area from which the goal is kicked ; dimensions of the goal area – 18.32 m (20 yards) by 5.5 m (6 yards).

    Corner sectors: in each of the four corners of the field, an arc with a radius of 1 m (or 1 yard) is drawn with a center in the corner of the field, limiting the sector for the execution of corner kicks . Also, flags must be placed at each corner of the field on flagpoles that do not have points on top.

    The form

    According to the Rules, the mandatory elements of equipment are: a shirt (or T-shirt) with sleeves, underpants, leggings, shields and boots.There are 17 official rules of the game, each of which contains a list of reservations and guidelines. These rules are intended to apply at all levels of football, although there are some changes for groups such as juniors, adults, women and people with disabilities. Laws are very often formulated in general terms, which make it possible to simplify their application depending on the nature of the game. The rules of the game are published in FIFA , but are supported by the International Council of Football Associations (IFAB) [36] .
    Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of which must be a goalkeeper . Unofficial competition rules can reduce the number of players to a maximum of 7. Goalkeepers are the only players who are allowed to play with their hands on the condition that they do so within the penalty area at their own goal. Although there are various positions on the field, these positions are optional [37] .
    The pause between the first and second halves is 15 minutes, during which the teams rest, and at the end they change the goal [38] .
    The goal of the game is to score the ball into the opponent’s goal , do it as many times as possible and try to prevent the goal into your own goal. The match is won by the team that scored the most goals.
    If during two halves the teams scored the same number of goals ( draw ), then either a tie is fixed or the winner is identified in accordance with the established rules of the match. In this case, additional time can be assigned – two more halves of 15 minutes each. As a rule, teams are given a break between the main and extra time of the match. Between extra halves, teams are only given time to switch sides. At one time in football there was a rule according to which the winner was the team At the moment, extra time is either not played at all, or played in full (2 halves of 15 minutes). If during the extra time the winner cannot be identified, a series of penalty shootouts that are not part of the match is carried out : five shots by different players break through the opponent’s goal from a distance of 11 meters. If the number of penalties scored by both teams is equal, then one pair of penalties will break through until a winner is identified 

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